Introduction: Ultimate Values, Business and the Professions
**Peter Singer, ‘The Ultimate Choice,’ in How are We to Live? Ethics in an age of self-interest, (Mandarin: Melbourne, 1995), pp. 1-25.
**Robert Solomon, ‘Business Ethics’, in Peter Singer (ed.) A Companion to Ethics, (Blackwell:Oxford, 1991), pp. 354-365.
**Michael D. Bayles, ‘The Professions’, in Professional Ethics, 1981. Reprinted in Joan C. Callahan (ed.), Ethical Issues in Professional Life, (Oxford University Press: Oxford, 1988), pp. 27-30.
Ethics and the Nature of Moral Reasoning
**Stephen Cohen, ‘Top-down and Bottom-up Reasoning’ and ‘Reflective Equilibrium,’ in The Nature of Moral Reasoning, (Oxford: Oxford University Press 2004), pp. 59-74.
**Joan C. Callahan (ed.), ‘Some Major Distinctions and What Morality is Not’ and ‘Kinds of Moral Principles’ in Ethical Issues in Professional Life, (Oxford University Press: Oxford), 1988, pp. 10-14 and 19-21.
**Damian Grace and Stephen Cohen, ‘Consequentialism’, ‘Nonconsequentialism’, ‘Virtue Ethics’, and ‘Relativism’, in Business Ethics, (Oxford University Press: Oxford, 2010), pp. 15-27.
James Rachels, The Elements of Moral Philosophy, 3rd ed., Boston: McGraw-Hill College, 1999. See especially chapters 5, 7, 9 & 10. (Reserve collection) (This is a very accessible introduction to moral philosophy)
**Peter Singer, ‘What ethics is: one view’, in Practical Ethics, (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1979), pp. 8-13.
The Social Responsibility of Business: The Narrow View
**Albert Z. Carr, ‘Is Business Bluffing Ethical?’ Harvard Business Review, January- February, 1968. Reprinted in Tom Beauchamp & Norman Bowie (eds.). Ethical Theory and Business, 6th edition, (Prentice Hall, 2001), pp. 501-506.
**Milton Friedman, ‘The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits’, New York Times Magazine, September, 1970. Reprinted in George D. Chryssides & John H. Kaler, An Introduction to Business Ethics’, (Chapman & Hall, London, 1993), pp. 249-254.
**Mark Dowie, ‘Pinto Madness’, reprinted in Lisa H. Newton & Maureen M. Ford (eds.). Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Issues in Business Ethics and Society, 8th edition, (McGraw Hill, 2004) pp. 248-262.
**Norman Bowie, ‘Changing the Egoistic Paradigm’, Business Ethics Quarterly, Vol. 1. (Jan., 1991), pp. 1-21.
Norman Chase Gillespie, ‘The Business of Ethics’, in
Profits and Professions: Essays in Business and Professional Ethics. edited by Wade L. Robison, Michael S. Pritchard, and Joseph S. Ellin (Clifton, NJ. Humana Press, 1983), pp. 133- 40.)[This is an interesting critique of Carr’s essay. Search author and title of the article to find online versions.]
T. Mulligan, “A critique of Milton Friedman's essay ‘The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits’.” J Bus Ethics, 5(4), (1986) pp.265-269.
The Social Responsibility of Business: Broader Views and Stakeholder Theory
**William M. Evan & R. Edward Freeman, ‘A stakeholder theory of the modern corporation: Kantian capitalism’. Reprinted in George D. Chryssides & John H. Kaler, An Introduction to Business Ethics’, (Chapman & Hall, London, 1993), pp. 254-266.
**K. E. Goodpaster, ‘Business Ethics and Stakeholder Analysis’, Business Ethics Quarterly, Vol. 1, No. 1. (Jan., 1991), pp. 53-73.
**Neil A. Shankman, ‘Reframing the Debate between Agency and Stakeholder Theories of the Firm’, Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 19, No. 4 (May, 1999), pp. 319-334.
**Lynn Stout, 'How Shareholder Primacy gets Corporate Economics Wrong', Chapter 3, The Shareholder Value Myth: How putting shareholders first harms investors, corporations, and the public, (Berrett-Koehler Publishers, San Francisco 2012), pp. 33-46.
Lynn Stout, ‘Response:The Toxic Side Effects of Shareholder Primacy’, University of Pennsylvania Law Review, Vol. 161: 2003, pp. 2003-2023.
Justice, Markets and Equality
**William H. Shaw & Vincent Barry, ‘Justice and Economic Distribution’, Chap. 3 in Shaw & Barry (eds.) Moral Issues in Business, 6th edition, (Wadsworth, Belmont, CA, 1995), pp. 101-126.
**Richard Norman, ‘Arguments for Equality’, in Free and Equal, (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1987), pp. 65-88.
**Peter Singer, ‘From equality of opportunity to equality of consideration’, in Chap. 2 of Practical Ethics, (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1979), pp. 34-39.
**Peter Singer, ‘Rights and the Market’, in Justice and Economic Distribution, John Arthur and William Shaw (eds.), Prentice Hall, Inc, (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1978), pp. 207-221.
**Wilkinson and Pickett, ‘Poverty or Inequality?’ Chap. 2 of The Spirit Level: Why Equality is Better for Everyone, (Penguin Books, London, 2010), pp. 15-30.
Ethical Issues in Advertising
** Robert L. Arrington, ‘Advertising and Behavior Control’ in William H. Shaw and Vincent Barry, Moral Issues in Business. 8th edition (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 2001.) pp. 529-535.
**Richard L. Lippke, ‘Advertising and the Social Conditions of Autonomy’ in William H. Shaw and Vincent Barry, Moral Issues in Business. 8th edition (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 2001.) pp. 536-541.
Tom L. Beauchamp, ‘Manipulative Advertising,’ Business and Professional Ethics Journal 3 (Spring/Summer 1984), 1-22.
Damian Grace and Stephen Cohen, Chapter 5, ‘Marketing and Advertising Ethics,’ in Business Ethics. 4th edition, (Oxford University Press: Oxford, 2010), pp. 116-143.
David M. Holley, ‘A Moral Evaluation of Sales Practices’ n William H. Shaw and Vincent Barry, Moral Issues in Business. 8th edition (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 2001.) pp. 522-529.
Barbara J. Phillips, ‘In Defence of Advertising: A Social Perspective,’ Journal of Business Ethics 16, (1997), pp. 109-118.
Business and the Environment
**Partick G. Derr and Edward M. McNamara, ‘A Word about Ethical Theories’ in Case Studies in Environmental Ethics xv-xxi, Oxford: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers Incorporated, 2003.
**Joe DesJardins, ‘Corporate Environmental Responsibility’ in Journal of Business Ethics 17, 1998, pp. 825-838.
**S. Salman Hussain, ‘The Ethics of “Going Green”: The Corporate Social Responsibility Debate’ in Business Strategy and the Environment 8, 1999, pp. 203-210.
Damian Grace and Stephen Cohen, Chapter 8, ‘The Environment,’ in Business Ethics. 4th edition, (Oxford University Press: Oxford, 2010), pp. 191-214.
W. Michael Hoffman, ‘Business and Environmental Ethics,’, Business Ethics Quarterly 1, (April 1991), pp. 169-184.
Corporate Influence on Government
**B. Hourigan, ‘Who Pays? Political Donations and Democratic Accountability’, IPA Review, 2006, 58(3), pp. 12-15.
**Leonard J. Weber, ‘Citizenship and Democracy: The Ethics of Corporate Lobbying,’ Business Ethics Quarterly, 1996, Vol. 6, 2, pp. 253-259.
Miguel Alzola, 'Corporate Dystopia: The Ethics of Corporate Political Spending,' 'Business and Society,' 2013 52(3), 388-426.
**Sally Young and Joo-Cheong Tham, ‘Private Funding of Political Parties’, Ch. 2 in Political Finance in Australia: a skewed and secret system? (Canberra: Australian National University, 2006), pp. 8-35.
Industry Relations with the Professions
**Wendy Rogers and Angela Ballantyne, ‘Justice in Health Research: What is the Role of Evidence-Based Medicine?’ Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 52, 2, 2009, pp. 188-202.
**Dana J, Loewenstein G. A social science perspective on gifts to physicians from industry. JAMA. 2003; 290(2):252-255. 15.
a) Relations with the Pharmaceutical Industry
**Elliott, C. 2004. Pharma goes to the laundry. Hastings Cent Rep 34 (5):18-23.
**Elliott, C. 2008. Guinea-pigging: healthy human subjects for drug safety trials are in demand. But is it a living? New Yorker 7:36-41.
**Healy, D., and D. Cattell. 2003. Interface between authorship, industry and science in the domain of therapeutics. Br J Psychiatry 183:22-7.
**Wazana A. Physicians and the pharmaceutical industry: is a gift ever just a gift? JAMA. 2000;283 (3):373-380.
b) Conflicts of Interest
**Carson TL. Conflicts of interest and self-dealing in the professions: a review essay. Business Ethics Quarterly 2004; 14 (1): 161-182.
**David M. Conflict of Interest. Encyclopedia of Applied Ethics, Vol 1 pp 589-595.
**Pritchard M. Conflicts of Interest: conceptual and normative issues. Academic Medicine 1996; 71 (12): 1305-1313.
**Stark A. Comparing conflict of interest across the professions. In Davis and Stark (eds) Conflict of Interest in the Professions. NY: OUP; 2001, pp 335-351.
**Warner TD and Roberts LW. Scientific integrity, fidelity and conflicts of interest in research. Current Opinion in Psychiatry 2004; 17: 381-385.
Justice and Globalisation
**Denis G. Arnold and Norman E. Bowie, ‘Sweatshops and Respect for Persons’, Business Ethics Quarterly, 2003, Vol. 13, Issue 2, pp. 221-242.
**Susan Black and Allen Myerson ‘Are Sweatshops Necessarily Evil?’ Ch. 16 of Lisa Newton and Maureen Ford (Eds) Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Issues in Business Ethics and Society, (New York, McGraw-Hill, 2004) pp. 306-315.
**Thomas Pogge, ‘Moral Universalism and Global Economic Justice’, Chapter 4 of World Poverty and Human Rights (Oxford, Blackwell, 2002), pp. 91-117.
**Peter Singer, ‘One Economy’, ch. 3 in One World – the Ethics of Globalisation, (Melbourne, Text, 2002), pp.58-119.
**Joseph Stiglitz, ‘The Promise of Global Institutions’, ch. 1 in Globalization and its Discontents, (London, Allen Lane, 2002), pp. 3-22.
Discrimination and Affirmative Action
**Richard De George, ‘Discrimination, Affirmative Action, and Reverse Discrimination’,Ch. 16 of Richard de George, Business Ethics, 4th edition, (New Jersey, Prentice Hall,1995), pp. 421- 450.
**Edwin C. Hettinger, ‘What is Wrong with Reverse Discrimination?’ in W. Michael Hoffman, Robert E. Frederick & Mark Schwartz (eds.) Business Ethics: Readings and Cases in Corporate Morality, 4th edition (New York, McGraw-Hill, 2001), pp. 315-322
Madeline E. Heilman, ‘Sex Discrimination and the Affirmative Action Remedy: The Role of Sex Stereotypes,’ Journal of Business Ethics 16 (1997): 877-899.
Irving Thalberg, ‘Themes in the Reverse-Discrimination Debate,’Ethics 91 (October 1980): 138-150.
Ethical Business Models and Moral Managers
**Leo E. Strine Jr. ‘Making it Easier for Directors to “Do the Right Thing”?’, Harvard Business Law Review Vol. 4, 2, 2014, pp. 235-253.
L.R. Boatright, ‘Presidential Address: Does Business Ethics rest on a mistake?,’ Business Ethics Quarterly 9, 1999, pp. 583-592.
John Hendry, ‘Morality and Markets: A Response to Boatright,’ Business Ethics Quarterly 11, 2001, pp. 537-545.