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AHIS255 – The Historical Geography of Biblical Lands

2017 – S2 Day

General Information

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Unit convenor and teaching staff Unit convenor and teaching staff Unit Convenor
Kyle Keimer
Contact via email
Australian Hearing Hub, Level 2
by appointment
Credit points Credit points
3
Prerequisites Prerequisites
12cp at 100 level or above
Corequisites Corequisites
Co-badged status Co-badged status
Unit description Unit description
Biblical texts often have an implicit understanding of the geography that influenced the unfolding of historical events in the southern Levant--the region of modern-day Israel, Jordan, and Lebanon. This geography was a limiting factor for the ambitions of various peoples, such as the Israelites, Canaanites, Egyptians, Philistines, Assyrians, Persians, Greeks, and Romans; it was also something they aspired to overcome. The constant interplay between humankind and geography and between one group’s understanding and use of geography against another group's lies behind the biblical texts and the history of Israel/Palestine to the present day. Further, the region's landscape has been the inspiration for some of the most poetic biblical passages, the Psalms. This unit will focus on a region-by-region study of the land of the Bible and will detail how select biblical episodes are enriched when understood in the context of Near Eastern history and Palestinian geography.

Important Academic Dates

Information about important academic dates including deadlines for withdrawing from units are available at http://students.mq.edu.au/student_admin/enrolmentguide/academicdates/

Learning Outcomes

  1. Gain a detailed knowledge of the geography of the land within which the events of the biblical texts are set.
  2. Identify important regional aspects of the land and understand their bearing on settlement, defense, and historical developments from ancient to modern times.
  3. Understand the discipline of historical geography and recount some of its most important literature.
  4. Analyze source material, including the archaeological record, ancient texts, and modern scholarship. Offer critiques of the sources.
  5. Synthesize acquired knowledge and understanding to produce critical analytical writings.

General Assessment Information

The assessments for this unit are varied and intended to develop research skills, attention to detail, ability to communicate, synthesis of data, collegiality, and confidence. There are those that are more dynamic, requiring your presence and interaction (map markings), and those that afford a more deliberate and concerted effort to produce quality understanding and content (the article summaries and short essays). These latter two assessments--your article summaries and short essays--will be submitted via forums on iLearn. Your maps will be submitted once we have finished with them; there are 7 maps. As each map is completed and discussed, it will be submitted for marking. Your student ID number should be printed legibly on the back of the maps for identification.

Submission of Assignments: All assignments are to be submitted by their respective due dates and times (which are all listed according to local Sydney time). Access to the internet and the ability to download and/or view unit materials are essential. Any technical issue encountered with accessing unit materials should be directed to the IT department via ask.mq.edu.au. After lodging a complaint/request with them you must also notify me via email concerning the issue as soon as possible after it is discovered.

Assignments will be assessed on their level of completion, coherence, correction, grammar, and comprehension.

Assessment tasks / assignments are compulsory and must be submitted on time. Extensions for assignments can only be granted for medical reasons or on compassionate grounds. Without documentation (medical or counseling certificates) or prior staff approval, if you miss a class session you will not be able to make up the assessment for that day/week. If required, applications for extensions should be made to me before the assignment's due date. Assessments submitted late will be penalized 2% every day up to 5 days. No assessment will be accepted if it is 6 or more days late. No assessments will be accepted after assessments have been corrected and feedback has been provided.

For Special Consideration Policy see under Policies and Procedures.

Note on Assessment - To complete the unit satisfactorily you will need to achieve an overall mark worth 50% or above.

It is highly recommended that you come to all lectures and tutorials. Further, you should complete the readings for any given week before that week's lecture.

Assessment Tasks

Name Weighting Due
Map Marking Exercises 25% Weekly
Article Summaries (Forum Post) 25% Week 2, Ongoing by Week 12
Short Essays-Biblical 50% Wks 4,6,8,10,12

Map Marking Exercises

Due: Weekly
Weighting: 25%

Each week you will read a selection from the Regional Study Guide (RSG) and mark the relevant Regional Study Map (RSM) per the instructions given in the RSG. Colored pencils/pens are required for this exercise. Maps will be reviewed every week. You will be expected to discuss the way in which the geography impacted the various historical events covered in the readings. Marks for this assessment are based on the following: 1) completeness of your marking assignment; 2) ability to recount the historical events marked on your maps when called upon; and, 3) attention to detail in the marking of your maps.


This Assessment Task relates to the following Learning Outcomes:
  • Gain a detailed knowledge of the geography of the land within which the events of the biblical texts are set.
  • Identify important regional aspects of the land and understand their bearing on settlement, defense, and historical developments from ancient to modern times.
  • Analyze source material, including the archaeological record, ancient texts, and modern scholarship. Offer critiques of the sources.

Article Summaries (Forum Post)

Due: Week 2, Ongoing by Week 12
Weighting: 25%

Over the course of the semester you will read five articles dealing with historical geographical issues and write up a 250 word review of each of the articles. The first article to review is listed in the unit guide; you will choose the other four from an approved list of choices which can be accessed via the "Unit Readings" tab in the library's Multisearch. Your first review is due by the beginning of class on Week 2, the remaining four reviews are due by the beginning of class on week 12 (they can be submitted at any time up until that deadline). You will submit your articles to the appropriate forums on the iLearn page (e.g., your first article review will be posted to "first article review", your second, to "second article review", etc.). It doesn't matter which articles from the list you choose or in what order you read them. Postings should be 250 words in length. They should summarize the reading and also include the following: a) evaluation of the way biblical geography is used to illuminate the text or ancient history; b) note what you found most beneficial about the article, particularly in relation to other things you are learning and reading for the unit. In addition to these two points, marks for this assessment are also based on the following: 1) integration of data; 2) level of comprehensiveness, conciseness, and coherency in your summary; 3) an indication of thoughtful reflection on the materials read. 


This Assessment Task relates to the following Learning Outcomes:
  • Gain a detailed knowledge of the geography of the land within which the events of the biblical texts are set.
  • Understand the discipline of historical geography and recount some of its most important literature.
  • Analyze source material, including the archaeological record, ancient texts, and modern scholarship. Offer critiques of the sources.
  • Synthesize acquired knowledge and understanding to produce critical analytical writings.

Short Essays-Biblical

Due: Wks 4,6,8,10,12
Weighting: 50%

These five 750-word assessments are due by the beginning of class on weeks 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12. Each of the essays has a specific theme, but within that theme you are free to choose a specific topic/focus.

The themes are:

1) An archaeological site: choose one archaeological site and discuss its historical geographical setting and significance. Consider why the site is where it is. What resources are nearby? Who controlled it in various time periods? etc.;

2) Geography in the Psalms: choose one Psalm that mentions/alludes to/draws upon geographical knowledge of the land of Israel and/or that uses specific geographical terminology, and then discuss how the Psalm utilises geography. Is a specific place/feature mentioned in passing? Is it central to the Psalm? Is the Psalm using geography to make a more significant point? etc.;

3) Geography in the historical biblical books: Choose a passage from one of the historical books of the Bible (Gen 12-50, Ex, Lev, Num, Deut, Josh, Judg, 1-2 Sam, 1-2 Kgs, 1-2 Chronicles, Ezra, Neh, Gospels) and evaluate the role of the geography of the land of the Bible in the passage. Did the geography dictate the outcome of a specific event? Did it influence it? To whose favour? Is the geography portrayed literally or symbolically/metaphorically? etc.;

4) Geography in the Prophetic Biblical Books: Similar to #2 and 3 but you choose a passage from a prophetic book (Isa, Jer, Ezek, Hos, Joel, Amos, Obad, Jon, Mic, Nah, Hab, Zeph, Hag, Zech, Mal).

5) Flora/Fauna: You will choose one type of floral (i.e., trees, plants [e.g., cedars]) or faunal (i.e., animals [e.g., rock badgers]) item and focus on where this item appears in the land; in which regions covered in class does your chosen item appear? Why does it appear there? When did it appear there? Is your chosen topic mentioned in the biblical texts? Where? Is it portrayed in a specific way? etc.

*Note: a) you must use at leastscholarly sources for each of your essays (this means most websites will not be acceptable [digital journals accessed via an online journal database such as Jstor are perfectly acceptable]). *If you are unclear on whether or not a source is acceptable, ask me. Provide a bibliography for each essay (the Bible itself does not count as a resource!). Marks for this assessment are based on the following: 1) consideration and clear articulation of the various factors for the use/reference to a geographical feature/location/region; 2) clearness of writing; and, 3) accuracy of details.


This Assessment Task relates to the following Learning Outcomes:
  • Gain a detailed knowledge of the geography of the land within which the events of the biblical texts are set.
  • Identify important regional aspects of the land and understand their bearing on settlement, defense, and historical developments from ancient to modern times.
  • Understand the discipline of historical geography and recount some of its most important literature.
  • Analyze source material, including the archaeological record, ancient texts, and modern scholarship. Offer critiques of the sources.
  • Synthesize acquired knowledge and understanding to produce critical analytical writings.

Delivery and Resources

COURSE DESCRIPTION:

The events recorded in the biblical texts are often done so with an implicit understanding of the geography and the way in which that geography influenced the unfolding of the events. Throughout history the geography of what is today modern Israel, Lebanon and Jordan has remained constant and has been at the same time a limiting factor for the ambitions of men and something they aspire to overcome. It has also been the inspiration for some of the most poetic biblical passages, the Psalms. The constant interplay between man and geography and between one group’s understanding and use of geography over against another group lies behind not only the biblical texts, but also the history of Israel/Palestine up until the modern day. This class will focus on a region-by-region study of the land of the Bible and will detail how select biblical episodes are enriched when understood in the context of Near Eastern history and Palestinian geography.

 

REQUIRED TEXTS:

1. Monson, J. M. and S. P. Lancaster. Regions on the Run: Introductory Map Studies in the Land of the Bible [RR]. Biblical Backgrounds, Inc., Rockford, IL. 2012.

2. Monson, J. M. and S. P. Lancaster. Regional Study Guide w/ Regional Study Maps [RSG] Biblical Backgrounds, Inc., Rockford, IL. 2012.

*These first two have been ordered by the Coop and are sold as "The Introductory Study Package" (ISBN: 5555026667263). There is a pdf document that accompanies the Regional Study Guide that needs to be downloaded (for free) from the Biblical Backgrounds website (www.bibback.com).

3. Bible—multiple English translations can be found at biblegateway.com if you do not have a Bible.

4. Articles to be assigned—will be posted on multisearch

 

 

RECOMMENDED TEXTS:

1. Aharoni, Y. The Land of the Bible: A Historical Geography (Revised and Enlarged Ed.). The

         Westminster Press, Philadelphia. 1979. [ARC DS118 .A3313/1979]

2. Rainey, Anson F. and Steven R. Notley. The Sacred Bridge (2nd ed.). Carta, Jerusalem. 2011.

3. Smith, George Adam The Historical Geography of the Holy Land [HGHL]. 30th ed. Ariel Publishing House, Jerusalem. 1966. (Any version since the 25th Edition [1931] is acceptable). [ARC DS107 .S6.]

4. Stern, Ephraim The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land (5 Vols.). Israel Exploration Society/Simon & Schuster, Jerusalem/New York. 1993-2008. 

This class is offered internally. Students will meet in-class for lectures and tutorials. Every student will need internet access that allows the downloading of files and additional resources in order to pass this course. Additionally, access to a library and/or article database such as Jstor will be necessary to complete most of the assignments. If individual access to such databases is not possible, access is possible via the Macquarie Library website, although a proxy server may be necessary (for more see the "IT Help" link under the "Policies and Procedures" tab).

Additional resources, including weblinks, any additional directions, and any announcements will appear on the unit's iLearn page.

Unit Schedule

I. Historical Geography and its Disciplines

Week 1. Introduction: the role of Historical Geography; the “Dynamic” of the Land; Disciplines and Tools

READINGS: W. McDougall “Why Geography Matters,” American Educator, Spring 2001 (http://www.aft.org/newspubs/periodicals/ae/spring2001/mcdougall.cfm)

                   *(Readings with an asterisk (*) are optional but recommended) HGHL  80-97 (this is the Smith book listed above under 'recommended texts')

                   *Aharoni 105–130

DISCUSSION TOPICS:

 1. Useful texts and reference works

 2. A “layered” approach

 3. History of the discipline and its contribution to biblical studies

 4. The significance and challenge of the “Land Between”

 

Week 2. Sources and Chronological Issues and Physical Geography

READINGS: RR 3–7, 38–40

                   RSG 3–21

                   *HGHL 27–79

                   *Aharoni 81–104

         *ARTICLE REVIEW 1 DUE (on McDougall)

DISCUSSION TOPICS:

 1. Biblical Sources

 2. Historical Sources (Egyptian, Mesopotamian, Canaanite)

 3. The contribution of archaeology

 4. The geology behind the geography

 5. The Land Between in its Middle Eastern Context

 

II. International Priorities and the Northern Arena: Openness, Temptation, and Danger

Week 3. Regions and Highways and the Galilee and The Coastal Plain (N)

READINGS: RR 8–13

                   RSG 22–36

                   *HGHL 269–300; 101–124

DISCUSSION TOPICS:

 1. International Highways

 2. Local By-ways

 3. The disparate nature of Upper and Lower Galilee

 4. Galilee: a melting pot of cultures

 5. The Coastal Plain: from swamp to fields

 

WEEK 4. The Huleh, Golan, Bashan, and Gilead

READINGS: RR 14–15

                   *HGHL 300–310; 335–356; 386–431

         Essay 1 Due

DISCUSSION TOPICS:

1. A confluence of cultures: identifying political control in the Huleh

2. Amos 6 and the Theology of Geography

3. Should the state of Israel give the Golan Heights back to Syria?

 

WEEK 5. Jezreel Valley: the International Crossroads and Samaria

READINGS: RSG 37–45

                   *HGHL 216–240; 246–269

DISCUSSION TOPICS:

1. Megiddo: more precious than 1000 cities

2. The moving capital of the northern Kingdom of Israel

3. Shechem as “storied place”

 

III. The Southern Arena: Western Opportunity, Southern and Eastern Threat

Week 6. The Negev and the Great Wilderness

READINGS: RR 16–19

                   RSG 46–55

                   *HGHL 310–331 (Jordan Valley and Dead Sea)

           Essay 2 Due

DISCUSSION TOPICS:

1. Through the desert on a horse with no name: the Israelite wanderings

2. Horvat Tov and the issue of smuggling

3. Early Egyptian interest in the Negev

 

Week 7. The Shephelah and Philistia

READINGS: RR 18–19

                   RSG 60–71

                   *HGHL 125–167

DISCUSSION TOPICS:

1. The saloon door of the Land Between: buffer of protection or path of invasion?

2. The way to the Hills

3. Philistine presence and expansion from the Yarkon to the Brook of Egypt

4. Lmlk jars and the administration of Judah

 

Week 8. Transjordan: Edom, Moab, and Ammon

READINGS: RR 20–21

                   RSG 55–59

                   *HGHL 356–385

         Essay 3 Due

DISCUSSION TOPICS:

1. Where is early Edom?

2. What's so appealing about Transjordan?

3. The Jordan Valley: cultural conduit or dead-end?

 

IV. The Central Arena: Sanctuary and Springboard

Week 9. The Region of Benjamin: the Hub of Judah

READINGS: RR 22–27

                   RSG 72–87

DISCUSSION TOPICS:

 1. Just how strategic is the region of Benjamin?

 2. From the moon to the sun: Jericho to Beth Shemesh

 

Week 10. The Region of Benjamin: the Hub of Judah and The Hill Country of Judah

READINGS: RSG 87–99

                   *HGHL 171–215

             Essay 4 Due

DISCUSSION TOPICS:

1. The way of the Patriarchs

2. The backwater of the Land Between

3. The lmlk jars and the divisions of Judah

 

Week 11. Jerusalem: An Unlikely Hub

READINGS: RR 28–29

                   RSG 99–103

DISCUSSION TOPICS:

1. Jerusalem: A city on the road to nowhere

 2. The defense of Jerusalem

 3. Taking Jerusalem

 

V. Putting it all Together: the Land in “Layered” Chronological Perspective

Week 12. The “Testing Ground of Faith” in an Imperial World

READINGS: RSG 103–108

                   RR 30–37

            Essay 5 Due

            All Article Reviews Due

DISCUSSION TOPICS:

1. Assyrian, Babylonian, and Persian administration of Palestine.

2. Greeks, Romans, and Jews

3. Physical Theology: Geography in the Gospels

 

Week 13. One Land, Three Faiths: Historical Geography still matters today and The Legacy of the Land

READINGS: TBD

DISCUSSION TOPICS:

1. The coming of Islam

2. The Crusades

3. Current Events in the Holy Land

Policies and Procedures

Macquarie University policies and procedures are accessible from Policy Central. Students should be aware of the following policies in particular with regard to Learning and Teaching:

Academic Honesty Policy http://mq.edu.au/policy/docs/academic_honesty/policy.html

Assessment Policy http://mq.edu.au/policy/docs/assessment/policy_2016.html

Grade Appeal Policy http://mq.edu.au/policy/docs/gradeappeal/policy.html

Complaint Management Procedure for Students and Members of the Public http://www.mq.edu.au/policy/docs/complaint_management/procedure.html​

Disruption to Studies Policy http://www.mq.edu.au/policy/docs/disruption_studies/policy.html The Disruption to Studies Policy is effective from March 3 2014 and replaces the Special Consideration Policy.

In addition, a number of other policies can be found in the Learning and Teaching Category of Policy Central.

Student Code of Conduct

Macquarie University students have a responsibility to be familiar with the Student Code of Conduct: https://students.mq.edu.au/support/student_conduct/

Results

Results shown in iLearn, or released directly by your Unit Convenor, are not confirmed as they are subject to final approval by the University. Once approved, final results will be sent to your student email address and will be made available in eStudent. For more information visit ask.mq.edu.au.

Student Support

Macquarie University provides a range of support services for students. For details, visit http://students.mq.edu.au/support/

Learning Skills

Learning Skills (mq.edu.au/learningskills) provides academic writing resources and study strategies to improve your marks and take control of your study.

Student Enquiry Service

For all student enquiries, visit Student Connect at ask.mq.edu.au

Equity Support

Students with a disability are encouraged to contact the Disability Service who can provide appropriate help with any issues that arise during their studies.

IT Help

For help with University computer systems and technology, visit http://www.mq.edu.au/about_us/offices_and_units/information_technology/help/

When using the University's IT, you must adhere to the Acceptable Use of IT Resources Policy. The policy applies to all who connect to the MQ network including students.

Graduate Capabilities

Creative and Innovative

Our graduates will also be capable of creative thinking and of creating knowledge. They will be imaginative and open to experience and capable of innovation at work and in the community. We want them to be engaged in applying their critical, creative thinking.

This graduate capability is supported by:

Learning outcomes

  • Identify important regional aspects of the land and understand their bearing on settlement, defense, and historical developments from ancient to modern times.
  • Analyze source material, including the archaeological record, ancient texts, and modern scholarship. Offer critiques of the sources.
  • Synthesize acquired knowledge and understanding to produce critical analytical writings.

Assessment tasks

  • Article Summaries (Forum Post)
  • Short Essays-Biblical

Engaged and Ethical Local and Global citizens

As local citizens our graduates will be aware of indigenous perspectives and of the nation's historical context. They will be engaged with the challenges of contemporary society and with knowledge and ideas. We want our graduates to have respect for diversity, to be open-minded, sensitive to others and inclusive, and to be open to other cultures and perspectives: they should have a level of cultural literacy. Our graduates should be aware of disadvantage and social justice, and be willing to participate to help create a wiser and better society.

This graduate capability is supported by:

Learning outcome

  • Synthesize acquired knowledge and understanding to produce critical analytical writings.

Assessment tasks

  • Map Marking Exercises
  • Short Essays-Biblical

Socially and Environmentally Active and Responsible

We want our graduates to be aware of and have respect for self and others; to be able to work with others as a leader and a team player; to have a sense of connectedness with others and country; and to have a sense of mutual obligation. Our graduates should be informed and active participants in moving society towards sustainability.

This graduate capability is supported by:

Learning outcome

  • Synthesize acquired knowledge and understanding to produce critical analytical writings.

Assessment tasks

  • Map Marking Exercises
  • Short Essays-Biblical

Commitment to Continuous Learning

Our graduates will have enquiring minds and a literate curiosity which will lead them to pursue knowledge for its own sake. They will continue to pursue learning in their careers and as they participate in the world. They will be capable of reflecting on their experiences and relationships with others and the environment, learning from them, and growing - personally, professionally and socially.

This graduate capability is supported by:

Learning outcomes

  • Gain a detailed knowledge of the geography of the land within which the events of the biblical texts are set.
  • Identify important regional aspects of the land and understand their bearing on settlement, defense, and historical developments from ancient to modern times.
  • Understand the discipline of historical geography and recount some of its most important literature.

Assessment task

  • Map Marking Exercises

Problem Solving and Research Capability

Our graduates should be capable of researching; of analysing, and interpreting and assessing data and information in various forms; of drawing connections across fields of knowledge; and they should be able to relate their knowledge to complex situations at work or in the world, in order to diagnose and solve problems. We want them to have the confidence to take the initiative in doing so, within an awareness of their own limitations.

This graduate capability is supported by:

Learning outcomes

  • Gain a detailed knowledge of the geography of the land within which the events of the biblical texts are set.
  • Identify important regional aspects of the land and understand their bearing on settlement, defense, and historical developments from ancient to modern times.
  • Analyze source material, including the archaeological record, ancient texts, and modern scholarship. Offer critiques of the sources.
  • Synthesize acquired knowledge and understanding to produce critical analytical writings.

Assessment tasks

  • Article Summaries (Forum Post)
  • Short Essays-Biblical

Effective Communication

We want to develop in our students the ability to communicate and convey their views in forms effective with different audiences. We want our graduates to take with them the capability to read, listen, question, gather and evaluate information resources in a variety of formats, assess, write clearly, speak effectively, and to use visual communication and communication technologies as appropriate.

This graduate capability is supported by:

Learning outcomes

  • Identify important regional aspects of the land and understand their bearing on settlement, defense, and historical developments from ancient to modern times.
  • Understand the discipline of historical geography and recount some of its most important literature.
  • Analyze source material, including the archaeological record, ancient texts, and modern scholarship. Offer critiques of the sources.
  • Synthesize acquired knowledge and understanding to produce critical analytical writings.

Assessment tasks

  • Article Summaries (Forum Post)
  • Short Essays-Biblical

Capable of Professional and Personal Judgement and Initiative

We want our graduates to have emotional intelligence and sound interpersonal skills and to demonstrate discernment and common sense in their professional and personal judgement. They will exercise initiative as needed. They will be capable of risk assessment, and be able to handle ambiguity and complexity, enabling them to be adaptable in diverse and changing environments.

This graduate capability is supported by:

Learning outcomes

  • Identify important regional aspects of the land and understand their bearing on settlement, defense, and historical developments from ancient to modern times.
  • Understand the discipline of historical geography and recount some of its most important literature.

Assessment task

  • Map Marking Exercises

Discipline Specific Knowledge and Skills

Our graduates will take with them the intellectual development, depth and breadth of knowledge, scholarly understanding, and specific subject content in their chosen fields to make them competent and confident in their subject or profession. They will be able to demonstrate, where relevant, professional technical competence and meet professional standards. They will be able to articulate the structure of knowledge of their discipline, be able to adapt discipline-specific knowledge to novel situations, and be able to contribute from their discipline to inter-disciplinary solutions to problems.

This graduate capability is supported by:

Learning outcomes

  • Gain a detailed knowledge of the geography of the land within which the events of the biblical texts are set.
  • Identify important regional aspects of the land and understand their bearing on settlement, defense, and historical developments from ancient to modern times.
  • Understand the discipline of historical geography and recount some of its most important literature.
  • Analyze source material, including the archaeological record, ancient texts, and modern scholarship. Offer critiques of the sources.
  • Synthesize acquired knowledge and understanding to produce critical analytical writings.

Assessment tasks

  • Map Marking Exercises
  • Article Summaries (Forum Post)
  • Short Essays-Biblical

Critical, Analytical and Integrative Thinking

We want our graduates to be capable of reasoning, questioning and analysing, and to integrate and synthesise learning and knowledge from a range of sources and environments; to be able to critique constraints, assumptions and limitations; to be able to think independently and systemically in relation to scholarly activity, in the workplace, and in the world. We want them to have a level of scientific and information technology literacy.

This graduate capability is supported by:

Learning outcomes

  • Identify important regional aspects of the land and understand their bearing on settlement, defense, and historical developments from ancient to modern times.
  • Analyze source material, including the archaeological record, ancient texts, and modern scholarship. Offer critiques of the sources.
  • Synthesize acquired knowledge and understanding to produce critical analytical writings.

Assessment tasks

  • Article Summaries (Forum Post)
  • Short Essays-Biblical

Changes from Previous Offering

New assessments

Changes in some readings